The History of Ophthalmology. [21 Volumes / This being the most complete set on the international market with 11 Volumes bound in 19 Volumes [including the often missing three-volume-set: “The History of Contact Lenses” plus the rare two-volume-set: “The Ophthalmoscope” by Alfred Schett] / The 21 Volume-Set includes: Volume I: Antiquity / Volume II: Middle Ages – The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries / Volume III & IV: The Renaissance of Ophthalmology in the eighteenth century (Part One and Two) / Volume V-Volume VIII (in total this section has five volumes (5,6,7,8a,8b): The Renaissance of Ophthalmology in the eighteenth century (Part Three) & The first half of the nineteenth century – Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy / Volume IX: The First and Second half of the nineteenth century – United States of America (USA), Switzerland and Belgium / X: The first and the second half of the nineteenth century – [History of Ophthalmology in] The Netherlands, Scandinavia, Russia, Poland, Spain, Hispano-America (Latin-America), Portugal, Brasil, Greece,Turkey, The Balkan, Canada, Japan, Egypt / XI (Volume XI-Part One has 3 Volumes: A-C : The Reform of Ophthalmology / XI – 2 (Volume XI – Part Two has two parts in one and is called: Optical instruments by T. von Haugwitz and Part Two is a section by Frederick C.Blodi on “The Eye, Vision and Ophthalmology on Postage Stamps” / Volume XI, Part Three has 3 Volumes and is called “The History of Contact Lenses”. This often missing part in the set is rare because it was published only between 2003 and 2014 by Robert F. Heitz and translated by Colin Mailer. The Volumes in this section are: XI-A: Early Neutralizations of the Corneal Dioptric Power / XI-B: Keratoconus and the Use of Early Contact Lenses (1888-1920) / XI-C: From Corneo-Scleral Shells to Corneal Contact Lenses (1920-1970) / XI – Part III-Volume D is called “Ophthalmology in the german-speaking countries during the 20th century” (this Volume completes the original core-set but we have an additional two Volumes, published within the series by Alfred Schett, called “The Ophthalmoscope” – In two Volumes. Volume I: “The Ophthalmoscope” – A Contribution to the History of its Development up to the Beginning of the 20th Century – With 330 Illustrations – Translated by Donald L. Blanchard (1996) – Volume II- Atlas – With a Selection of 92 Ophthalmoscopes built between 1851 and 1952 (1997).
Oostende / Bonn, J.P.Wayenborgh, 1982 – 2014. Folio. More than 5000 pages with many illustrations and photographs. Original Hardcover, most of them with the rare illustrated dustjackets. Excellent condition with only minor signs of external wear. The price includes an upgrade to worldwide free shipping of the collection per DHL Express Courier.
Ophthalmology, medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the eye. The first ophthalmologists were oculists. These paramedical specialists practiced on an itinerant basis during the Middle Ages. Georg Bartisch, a German physician who wrote on eye diseases in the 16th century, is sometimes credited with founding the medical practice of ophthalmology. Many important eye operations were first developed by oculists, as, for example, the surgical correction of strabismus, first performed in 1738. The first descriptions of visual defects included those of glaucoma (1750), night blindness (1767), colour blindness (1794), and astigmatism (1801).(Source: Encyclopedia Britannica)
In the Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt dating to 1550 BC, a section is devoted to eye diseases.
The pre-Hippocratics largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism. They recognized the sclera and transparent cornea running flushly as the outer coating of the eye, with an inner layer with pupil, and a fluid at the centre. It was believed, by Alcamaeon (5th century BC) and others, that this fluid was the medium of vision and flowed from the eye to the brain by a tube. Aristotle advanced such ideas with empiricism. He dissected the eyes of animals, and discovering three layers (not two), found that the fluid was of a constant consistency with the lens forming (or congealing) after death, and the surrounding layers were seen to be juxtaposed. He and his contemporaries further put forth the existence of three tubes leading from the eye, not one. One tube from each eye met within the skull.
The Greek physician Rufus of Ephesus (1st century AD) recognised a more modern eye, with conjunctiva, extending as a fourth epithelial layer over the eye. Rufus was the first to recognise a two-chambered eye, with one chamber from cornea to lens (filled with water), the other from lens to retina (filled with an egg white-like substance).
Celsus the Greek philosopher of the 2nd century AD gave a detailed description of cataract surgery by the couching method.
The Greek physician Galen (2nd century AD) remedied some mistakes including the curvature of the cornea and lens, the nature of the optic nerve, and the existence of a posterior chamber. Though this model was a roughly correct modern model of the eye, it contained errors. Still, it was not advanced upon again until after Vesalius. A ciliary body was then discovered and the sclera, retina, choroid, and cornea were seen to meet at the same point. The two chambers were seen to hold the same fluid, as well as the lens being attached to the choroid. Galen continued the notion of a central canal, but he dissected the optic nerve and saw that it was solid. He mistakenly counted seven optical muscles, one too many. He also knew of the tear ducts.
Ophthalmic surgery in Great Britain
The first ophthalmic surgeon in Great Britain was John Freke, appointed to the position by the Governors of St Bartholomew’s Hospital in 1727. A major breakthrough came with the appointment of Baron de Wenzel (1724–90), a German who became oculist to King George III of England in 1772. His skill at removing cataract legitimized the field. The first dedicated ophthalmic hospital opened in 1805 in London; it is now called Moorfields Eye Hospital. Clinical developments at Moorfields and the founding of the Institute of Ophthalmology (now part of the University College London) by Sir Stewart Duke-Elder established the site as the largest eye hospital in the world and a nexus for ophthalmic research.
Numerous ophthalmologists fled Germany after 1933 as the Nazis began to persecute those of Jewish descent. A representative leader was Joseph Igersheimer (1879–1965), best known for his discoveries with arsphenamine for the treatment of syphilis. He fled to Turkey in 1933. As one of eight emigrant directors in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Istanbul, he built a modern clinic and trained students. In 1939, he went to the United States, becoming a professor at Tufts University. German ophthalmologist, Gerhard Meyer-Schwickerath is widely credited with developing the predecessor of laser coagulation, photocoagulation. In 1946, he conducted the first experiments on light coagulation. In 1949, he performed the first successful treatment of a retinal detachment with a light beam (light coagulation) by with a self-constructed device on the roof of the ophthalmic clinic at the University of Hamburg-Eppendorf.
Polish ophthalmology dates to the 13th century. The Polish Ophthalmological Society was founded in 1911. A representative leader was Adam Zamenhof (1888–1940), who introduced certain diagnostic, surgical, and nonsurgical eye-care procedures and was shot by the German Nazis in 1940. Zofia Falkowska (1915–93) head of the Faculty and Clinic of Ophthalmology in Warsaw from 1963 to 1976, was the first to use lasers in her practice. (Wikipedia)